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TRIBES & PEOPLE GROUPS
Who are they?
The Maasai, famous as
herders and warriors, once dominated the plains of East Africa. Now however
they are confined to a fraction of their former range.
How do they live?
For the Maasai, cattle are what make the good life, and milk and meat are
the best foods. Their old ideal was to live by their cattle alone other
foods they could get by exchange but today they also need to grow crops.
They move their herds from one place to another, so that the grass has a chance
to grow again; traditionally, this is made possible by a communal land tenure
system in which everyone in an area shares access to water and pasture.
Nowadays Maasai have increasingly been forced to settle, and many take jobs in
towns. Maasai society is organised into male age-groups whose members together
pass through initiations to become warriors, and then elders. They have no
chiefs, although each section has a Laibon, or spiritual leader, at its head.
Maasai worship one god who dwells in all things, but may manifest himself as
either kindly or destructive. Many Maasai today, however, belong to various
What problems do they face?
Since the colonial period, most of what used to be Maasai land has been
taken over, for private farms and ranches, for government projects or for
wildlife parks. Mostly they retain only the dryest and least fertile areas. The
stress this causes to their herds has often been aggravated by attempts made by
governments to 'develop' the Maasai. These are based on the idea that they keep
too much cattle for the land. However, they are in fact very efficient
livestock producers and rarely have more animals than they need or the land can
carry. These 'development' efforts try to change their system of shared access
to land. While this has suited outsiders and some entrepreneurial Maasai who
have been able to acquire land for themselves or sell it off, it has often
denuded the soil and brought poverty to the majority of Maasai, who are left
with too little and only the worst land.
Information kindly provided by
||The Worlds of a Maasai Warrior
An Autobiography - It gives the picture of a boy growing up as
a real Maasai and the new life in civilized world of Germany and USA - a man
between two cultures and the difficult question to decide which way to go
along. Makes yourself wondering about the way we Western people are living and
gives a chance to see our world with other eyers.
(amazon.com) - USA (amazon.co.uk) - UK
Since 1993 Survival has assisted
several Maasai groups in their struggle for their land. In Kenya we found funds
for a programme of consciousness-raising against land sales, and supported the
people of Iloodoariak and Mosiro, who are resisting the theft of their land
through a legal fraud. In Tanzania, we have backed the demand of the Maasai of
the Ngorongoro Conservation Area for a proper say in its administration, and
supported attempts to defend the sacred hill Endoinyo Ormoruwak ('hill of
Environmental Resource Coalition
advocates for the protection of
traditional land rights of the Maasai people, and for conservation, management
and sustainable use of the great ecosystems of East Africa.
The Maasai (Maa) Language
a brief description of the Maa
language. This language is spoken by some 500,000 Maasai, Samburu, Camus in
Kenya, and about another 500,000 people in Tanzania.
created in 2000 to improve the lives of Maasai women in
Kenya by increasing literacy.